Thursday, September 3, 2020

AMUL – A case study on IT in SCM

AMUL †A contextual analysis on IT in SCM A live instance of Use of IT Amul is a main food brand in India. It offers a wide scope of items like milk, milk powder, spread, ghee, cheddar, chocolates, Shrikhand, frozen yogurt and some more. The brand name AMUL is gotten from the Sanskrit word â€Å"Amoolya†, which means inestimable. The principal items with the Amul brand name were propelled in 1955. From that point forward, they have been being used in a large number of homes in all pieces of India, and beyond.Today Amul is an image of numerous things: Of top notch items sold at sensible costs, of accessibility, of administration. Amul has been certify with ISO 9001 and HACCP Certification by QAS, Australia-the main food organization in Asia to get the HACCP Certification â€Å"Amul† is a very much recognized and live case of utilizing IT Formed in the year 1946, Amul started the dairy co-employable development in India and shaped a pinnacle co-usable association call ed the Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF).Today, this development is being imitated in 70,000 towns in more than 200 locale in India, changing the provincial scene. This co-employable transformation has made India the biggest maker of milk on the planet today. Amul is additionally one of the biggest and most praised food brands in India. GCMMF markets its items through 50 deals workplaces all through India; and appropriation is done through a system of 4,000 stockists who, thusly, flexibly 500,000 retail outlets.The intricacy of coordinations can be pictured as far as: a huge number of liters of milk to be gathered from a huge number of town individuals. Strangely, milk is a short-lived ware; thus a solid coordination work is required in putting away, handling and disseminating the milk in required time. The instance of Amul's gracefully chain is vital just in light of the fact that the development has lead to effective assortment of milk as well as, more signific antly, has utilized IT to make higher benefits for milk makers. Job of Information Technology IT has assumed a basic job in the advancement of the Amul brand.The coordinations behind the coordination of around 6,000,000 liters of milk for each day from various town co-usable social orders all through Gujarat, and putting away, handling and delivering of milk items at different locale dairy social orders, is completed with clock-accuracy. In these, IT assumes a basic job. The establishment of more than 3,000 Automatic Milk Collection System Units (AMCUS) at town social orders to catch part data, milk fat substance volume gathered, and sum payable to every part, has demonstrated priceless in guaranteeing decency and straightforwardness all through the whole organization.GCMMF is a summit co-usable association that includes subsidiary part dairies/area milk associations, each having its own assembling unit. These part dairies thusly gather milk from individuals who flexibly milk two ti mes every day to the separate town co-usable social orders. To address the difficulty of developing business, IT was chosen as the push zone that would smooth out the creation and assortment process and the handling of milk items. This is the place the establishment of AMCUS made the whole activity look simple.As milk is a profoundly transient product in the gracefully chain, the AMCUS activity is indispensable for the tasks. All the more critically, this activity has expanded the trust and straightforwardness for IT in rustic regions'. On a normal, around thousand ranchers come to sell milk at their nearby helpful milk assortment focus. Every rancher is given a plastic card for recognizable proof, at the milk assortment counter, the rancher drops the card into a crate and the distinguishing proof number is transmitted to a PC connected to the machine.The milk is then gauged and the fat substance of the milk estimated by an electronic fat testing machine. Both these subtleties are r ecorded in the PC. The PC at that point ascertains the sum 1 AMUL †A contextual investigation on IT in SCM because of the rancher based on the fat substance. The estimation of the milk is then printed out on a slip and gave over to the rancher, who gathers the installment at the nearby window. With the assistance of IT the ranchers get their installments inside a matter of minutes.Each part saves the milk neglected capacity, preparing it and creating a few items, sold under the Amul brand name. As all items have a constrained time span of usability, the association's capacity to lead its activities in a smooth manner is significantly more excellent particularly when one thinks about the size of the tasks. Amul makes around 10 million installment exchanges day by day. On the coordinations side, in excess of 5,000 trucks move the milk from the towns to 200 dairy handling plants two times per day, as indicated by a painstakingly arranged schedule.Amul took a key choice to update a nd re-sort out the current programming applications in 1994 to address the difficulties of developing business. Likewise, Amul doled out the ERP programming improvement venture named as Enterprise wide coordinated application framework (EIAS) which covers a plenty of tasks like market arranging, publicizing and advancement, dispersion organize arranging, stock control, deals and bookkeeping, budgetary control, quality control the board and co-employable assistance management.Each of Amul's workplaces is associated by email and every one of them send a day by day report on deals and stock to the fundamental framework at Anand. Likewise, deals workplaces, C&F focuses and discount wholesalers of GCMMF have been associated through the Internet for ideal trade of data. Amul is likewise during the time spent Web-empowering the whole gracefully chain with the goal that it can catch key data at the source and utilize the equivalent for dynamic. This would incorporate any semblance of tr ansporters, part producing units, oil pressing stations, providers, stops and the ntire field power. A site (http://www. amul. com) has been built including sports data, plans and tests (to animate purchaser intrigue and to set up national brand acknowledgment) and business-to-shopper request situation. Amul has a client criticism channel which utilizes email tends to like [emailâ protected] com for cheddar items and [emailâ protected] com for margarine items. E-competency has been set up at the gracefully and dispersion closures of AMUL's business.At the flexibly end, a mechanized database has been set up everything being equal and their cows. Electronic gear measures and records characteristics and amounts gathered. PCs have been set up at part associations and town cooperatives. At the dispersion end, stockists have been given essential preparing and PCs. AMUL specialists help stockists and retailers to manufacture limited time website pages. AMUL digital amasses been set up at different areas in India, the USA, Singapore and Dubai.Each visit to the Indian digital store locales brings about extensive buys. A solid email database of in excess of 10,000 clients has additionally been created. Notwithstanding the EIAS, Amul has additionally been utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to plot zone/stop limit just as a pointer for zone, station and wholesaler areas, which are superimposed side-effect shrewd deals information. Going ahead, there are plans to present highlights like Internet banking administrations and ATMs which will empower milk social orders to credit installments legitimately to the dealer's bank account.In line with this vision, authorities at Amul are taking a gander at redesigning the plastic cards, which are as a rule at present utilized distinctly for distinguishing proof purposes, to savvy cards which can be utilized to pull back money from ATMs. Amul has drastically modified the appearance of the flexibly chain-by taking out th e mediator and carrying the maker closer to the shopper bringing about advantages for both. Amul has additionally connected wholesalers to the system and furthermore joined Web pages of top retailers in their site (www. amul. com) as a feature of B2B initiatives.Distributors can put in their requests on the site, amulb2b. com, particularly implied for tolerating orders from stockists and advancing Amul's items by means of 2 AMUL †A contextual investigation on IT in SCM E-business. A major accomplishment of IT in Amul has been the robotization of the mind boggling gracefully and conveyance chain. The robotized flexibly chain consistently incorporates the assembling dairy units for creation, arranging and crude material acquisition. It handles circulation of milk from surplus associations to shortfall unions.It is a live case of rehearsing Just in time gracefully chain the executives with six sigma exactness! Amul's accomplishment in utilizing IT for its potential benefit lies in the straightforward truth that the association has a reasonable IT vision and has utilized the capability of IT for dealing with its flexibly chain. In 2003, GCMMF won the esteemed universal CIO 100 honor from IDG's CIO Magazine, USA. The 2003 CIO 100 honor perceives associations around the globe that exceed expectations in constructive business execution through ingenious IT the executives and best practices.GCMMF, whose IT activities have been driven by the way of thinking of being an IT organization in food business, has motivated every one of its workers to continue the difficulties as a â€Å"change agent† by exceeding expectations their IT aptitudes so as to change the individuals around them towards IT reconciliation on both the closures of gracefully chain (town dairy rancher to end-shopper), GCMMF has additionally won the lofty Ramkrishna Bajaj National Quality Award for the year 2003.GCMMF has stowed this honor for embracing vital quality administration rehearses f or coordinations and acquisition. Throughout the years, it has set up a proficient gracefully chain that enters even the remotest corners of the nation. In synopsis, Amul has created world-class mastery in the physical conveyance of short-life produce. Effectively progressed in physical coordinations, Amul has imaginatively investigated approaches to utilize IT to improve its gracefully chain. (Source: amul. com, Expr

Saturday, August 22, 2020

College: An Opportunity to Succeed in Life Essay

School, to certain individuals, might be an exercise in futility, however to me school is a chance to prevail throughout everyday life. I went through each one of those years in primary school, center school, and secondary school, than why not take a couple of progressively supportive years and not be a waste! In the event that I don’t invest energy to improve my life, than by what method will I prevail throughout everyday life? I’ll disclose to you how. I won’t! Despite the fact that the word reference says that school is some school we go to or training to find a new line of work or occupation. It’s a whole lot, more! It’s probably the best open door anybody will ever get, and on the off chance that you go there you can safeguard your future will be the best thrill ride you’ve ever ridden in an amusement park. School isn’t only a straightforward structure individuals go to. It’s my future. It figures out what my life will be. On the off chance that I succeed or in the event that I won’t. School is extremely critical to me in light of the fact that it’s one bit nearer to my fantasies and is an entryway opening to numerous chances. In my family, nobody has gotten full training. My mom completed secondary school and got hitched. My dad lost enthusiasm for training after seventh grade and afterward never returned to class. My grandparents scarcely contemplated in light of the fact that their folks weren’t sufficiently rich to pay their school charges. As a youngster I had numerous fantasies and needs which my folks couldn’t satisfy in light of the fact that they weren’t sufficiently rich or they didn’t have time since they were excessively bustling setting aside every penny they earned. Nobody in my family has been similar to school. Thus, for me school is one I had always wanted worked out as expected. The most significant dreams of my life is to be an effective individual in my life and make my folks pleased for which I need decent training and school is one of my most significant degrees of instruction. School is only a flight of stairs closer to my fantasies after which I will be n ear the top. Right from primary school till secondary school an understudy is determined what to do, what to concentrate and how to do everything except for, school is unique. It’s the first occasion when you need to remain on your own special two feet and accomplish something. It’s is a spot with numerous chances. A spot where you become more acquainted with where you stand and what you need to do to get to the top. In school, you could choose what you need to do throughout everyday life and where you need to go. School is a way to circumstance when it shows individuals new aptitudes, makes them progressively gainful and gives them a more noteworthy comprehension of their general surroundings. School opens ways to circumstance and grows your frame of reference. For me, school will be a spot I can really demonstrate my capacities and abilities to the world. School is extremely imperative to me and I think it’s essential to each one of those individuals who are not kidding about existence and who realize how to acknowledge a chance and make the best out of it. For the vast majority school is their institute of matriculation, the spot that makes you a decent and fit individual. I for one think school will be perhaps the best understanding for me. An encounter I’ll truly like. A spot I’ll consistently love to be at. School for me I believe will be a home with an exceptional family and remarkable recollections.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Reflective learning report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Intelligent learning report - Essay Example I likewise guaranteed that I drove the bookkeeping division as a group. Cooperation unquestionably helped us since; we could create thoughts all the more rapidly and furthermore concoct answers for different issues looked over the span of work. This had a great deal of effect on the individuals I was working with since; they likewise figured out how to be dedicated and relate well with their associates. The effect on the result of work was additionally positive since, through my area of expertise, the association made ventures that were fruitful and productive. The learning model that was tremendously advantageous in my work is the test brain science model (Knowles, 2012, 9). I had drawn down the model and purposed to tail it bit by bit so as to accomplish my ideal targets. I was self-propelled and was likewise persuaded by the objectives and goals that I had set for myself and the organization. My kindred associates additionally spurred me to work more enthusiastically so as to acco mplish the set objectives. My discernment additionally significantly influenced my method of work since; on occasion I saw things not quite the same as the remainder of the representatives and therefore wound up committing errors. I likewise purposed to get all the important abilities for my work so as to accomplish my set objectives. I at that point surveyed my exhibition through investigating the upgrades of the organization. Along these lines, I would realize that I had an effect on the working environment and others as well. Meaningful Topic Applied: Team Work Team and gathering work gigantically aided the accomplishment of work at Vital Company. This is on the grounds that; with the records of the organization being so huge, we needed to partition ourselves into various gatherings so as to meet the time furthest reaches of setting up the budget reports. Individuals chose to shape bunches comprising of ten individuals each so as to suit all the individuals. Each gathering had a pioneer to arrange it and a secretary to take notes. Each gathering would then set its own objectives which it needed to accomplish toward the finish of the money related period. In any case, all gatherings consented to meet simultaneously so as to guarantee that each gathering met. After a specific period, each gathering broke down its exhibition and improvement through dissecting its shaping, raging, norming and performing regions (Belbin, 2012, 65). Collaboration additionally aided the achievement of the organization since; there was a superior dynamic, and inclusion of huge amount of work inside a brief period (Maddux and Wingfield, 2003, 11). Collaboration among the gathering individuals additionally advanced associate relations accordingly, prompting excellent work. My promptness and social aptitudes likewise expanded and I figured out how to introduce thoughts to a huge number of individuals. I additionally learnt on the best way to deal with contradictions among a huge gathe ring of individuals. There was additionally viable critical thinking in the gatherings. Collaboration additionally made the exhibition criticism increasingly significant on the grounds that; everybody comprehended what was normal and could screen the presentation against the desires. Furthermore, bunch conversations urged individuals to test their capacities and evaluate new thoughts. This invigorated people to become more grounded entertainers. Later on, one thing that I would change is the method of taking care of contentions in the gatherings; I would guarantee that compromise is finished by the individuals themselves and not by the pioneers or a portion of the individuals (Cohen and Bailey, 1997, 249). I would likewise guarantee that there is the feeling of responsibility in gatherings such

Monday, June 15, 2020

Real ACT Prep Guide, .

The practice questions on the ACT website. The updated sample Writing prompt for the new essay on the ACT website. In addition, look for practice materials that have been created to mimic the newer ACTs. This is our goal at Magoosh  Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã‚  we’ve created our questions and strategy advice with the more recent ACT tests in mind, and we will continue to update them as we see changes in the test. When we get more information on the release of The Real ACT Prep Guide, 4th Edition, we will be sure to pass it along here!

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Part Indigenous Speeches Essay - 1682 Words

Assignment 2 – Part A: Indigenous speeches – research essay The Apology – Prime Minister Kevin Rudd On the 13th February 2008, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, offered an Apology to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People by way of a speech that he presented to the 42nd parliament of the Commonwealth. His speech outlined the past oppression of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who had to endure pain and suffering. Children were forcibly removed from their families. Mr Rudd opened his speech in parliament with the words â€Å"We honour the Indigenous peoples of this land, the oldest continuing cultures in human history† (2012). It is true that Mr Rudd took the first step in reconciliation however he has not progressed as far as hoped. There has been little compensation made to the stolen generation. Was the apology a sincere one? Perhaps? His intentions were clear and precise. Rudd had said he would apologize and he did. He did not say he would compensate the Indigenous Australians in any form which would have gone a long way to begin the healing process. Especially due to the inconceivable horrors that were enacted against the Stolen Generations. Kevin Rudd’s speech was eloquent and lengthy (2012). He continued to make promises to the Indigenous Australians saying they, the government, were determined to close the gap, embrace new solutions to old issues and form a partnership between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Mr Rudd further explains theShow MoreRelatedmodule B essay978 Words   |  4 Pagesthe prescribed speeches to shape the audiences understanding of how knowledge of the past sheds light on the present - HSC 2013 Speeches form an interpretation of historical events and values which are moulded around the speakers opinions and ideology. Paul Keatings Funeral Service of the Unknown Australian Soldier 1993 and Noel Pearsons An Australian History for Us All 1996, demonstrate a contrast between how a historical and contextual understanding of these speeches helps create theRead MoreSpeech Essay in Speech Format.1514 Words   |  7 Pagesinvited to give a speech to the Australian Speaking Society on the topic ‘great speeches – the secret of success.’ Write the transcript for the speech including references to at least three speeches set for study. *** Ralph Waldo Emerson, an American essayist, lecturer and poet of the mid-19th century once said: â€Å"Speech is power: speech is to persuade, to convert, to compel,† and how correct is he even today. Speeches are an essential form of communication in our society as it has the capabilitiesRead MoreAdvanced English Module B: Critical Study Speeches; Bandler Anwar Sadat1590 Words   |  7 Pagesinterpretation of the prescribed texts and how your understanding of rhetorical devices have led to your appreciation of the speeches. Throughout time society has been presented with very unique and moving leaders who have successfully delivered speeches that will remain timeless and invaluable due to their powerful themes and beliefs portrayed within them. Speeches such as Faith Bandler’s â€Å"Hope, Faith and Reconciliation† and Anwar Sadat’s â€Å"Statement to the Knesset† will always remain significantRead MoreThe Traditional Athabascan Potlach904 Words   |  4 Pagesby their ancestors in the past. In this essay we will explore what the significance of the Athabascan potlatch and why it is so important to the communities where it is celebrated. We will also explore similar â€Å"gift giving† ceremonies by other indigenous people around the world. There are several kinds of Athabascan potlatches, the funeral potlatch, the memorial potlatch, and the celebratory potlatch. A potlatch is a gathering of the community to share in the hosts surplus of food and suppliesRead MoreIndigenous Development in Canada1706 Words   |  7 Pagesour interpretation of data on Aboriginal communities as, there is little data on Aboriginal people who do not live on Aboriginal reservations in Canada (Cardwell and Wilson: 2005). Furthermore, the data that is often used in empirical studies of indigenous communities often condense complex data – making it exceptionally difficult to paint an accurate picture of disparities in the Aboriginal population of Canada. Health disparities are the indicators of a disproportionate burden of disease on a particularRead MoreColonialism and the Indigenous Australians1151 Words   |  5 PagesAustralia places a detrimental threat to the health of Indigenous Australians. Inherent in colonialism were scientif ic racisms, institutional racism and structural violence. These factors continues to persist in the fabric of Australian society today and limits the life chances of Indigenous Australians. This essay illuminates colonialism as a major contributor to the social marginalisation and low socioeconomic status experienced by indigenous Australian. An analysis of Aboriginal infant mortalityRead MoreDiscuss Key Aspects Of Indigenous Thought Throughout The Lectures And Work Of Horn Miller And Frideres1694 Words   |  7 Pages1. Discuss key aspects of Indigenous thought in contrast to Eurocentric thought as illustrated in the lectures and work of Horn-Miller and Frideres. Provide 5 points and support your argument using examples. Key aspects of Indigenous knowledge include: monism, holism, relations, reciprocity, and inner/outer space (Frideres). The monist aspect of Indigenous ways of knowing suggests that there is no division between mind and matter. All animate and inanimate things have life spirit, and hence holdRead MoreEssay on Policies Affecting Indigenous Australians1550 Words   |  7 PagesIndigenous Australians have faced many changes to their original life style, with numerous policies being brought in. These policies had an incredible affect on how the indigenous Australians lived. The policies inflicted on the indigenous Australians varied widely and had numerous impacts. The policies of assimilation, protection and integration had mainly negative impacts on the community, causing loss of identity, language and religion. The policies of self-determination and reconciliation, hadRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Evo Morales 1398 Words   |  6 Pagestreasure! And then they might finish with the statement: â€Å"Viva Bolivia!† which means live Bolivia. But again, what does Bolivia mean to you? What makes Bolivian so proud? Martà ­n Sivak in his book: Evo Morales. The Extraordinary Rise of the First Indigenous President of Bolivia delivers a brief biography of â€Å"the son of Bolivia† Evo Morales, who probably is the most important and fascinating political figure in Latin American in the twenty-first century so far. It recognizes that Evo Morales’ governmentRead MoreComparing and Contrasting Nelson Mandela’s Inaugural Address and Kevin Rudd’s Sorry Speech886 Words   |  4 Pagestwo direct opposites he uses it too great effect. Again like Mandela, Rudd uses personal pronouns throughout his address to gain this sense of unity throughout the country. The repetition of â€Å"this day, this day† is a sign that this is going to be a part of history to come for Australia. Rudd uses a series of strong emotive language like â€Å"Inju stice† to emphasise that this is a matter that needed to be apologized for, that he does care about it, that it is a great wrong. The speaker also uses an extended

Body Art and Scarification free essay sample

African Body Art: Scarification Scarification is a Cultural practice among the African Culture. Some of the most elaborated patters scaring are found among the indigenous people of the Congo. The climate and costume in the Congo enable and promoted people to decor their bodies. Scarification is a procedure of incising the skin with a sharp tool to create raised marks and/or patterns. The tools used to cut the epidermis of the body are knife, glass, stone, coconut shell or seeds. Sometimes the wounds are manipulated with ashes or other substances to make them swell and leave a heavier scar. Beautiful and complex designs depended not only on the artists skill, but also the persons tolerance of pain. Scarification as a cultural practice carries a strong cultural significance within the individual, families, communities and society. Both men and women practice scarification. The main purpose of the practice is a notion of cultural aesthetic. We will write a custom essay sample on Body Art and Scarification or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Although there are many reasons for the practice of scarification, the quest for beauty is an essential issue or meaning to its use. In African Culture we have seen different practices that involve body modification. For example the lip plates, cranial deformation or teeth mutilation. Which are all meant for an aesthetic purpose. Among the African society the relief of the scars is found attractive and sensual in a women who wear them. Also the decorations on their bodies was belief to please the ancestors. The second cultural significance I find in the practice of Scarification is â€Å"Identity†. Scarring can say a lot about the person wearing it. The symbols used can transmit messages of identity and social status. It can be a matter of family pride, an indicator of one’s descent or tribal grouping. The design identifies a certain village or tribe. The scarring often takes place during rituals. The tribe people celebrate different stages of their life in rituals where scarification is performed. For example scarring is performed to signify childhood, the onset of puberty, initiations of young man to fraternities and adult hood. In a ritual to celebrate childhood the scarring commonly would be performed in the face or in the abdomen of young girls to emphasize the role of childbearing. For African girls scarring is practiced to celebrate the onset of puberty, the first menstrual cycle and childbirth. A womans commitment to tolerate pain  was an indication of her emotional maturity and willingness to bear children. Designs were added from youth and continued through adulthood. Which makes a parallel narrative between one’s body, the phases of life, an individual construction of identity and a communal notion of beauty Scarification rituals are also performed as a test for strength and courage. Scarring is painful and requires great personal strength to get through the procedure without crying out in pain. To do so would be to humiliate yourself. Some one with complex and a good amount of scarring is perceived as a strong person and is well respected within the society. Scarification representation among with other formal qualities can be found represented in traditional African art sculptures implying its importance as an aesthetic and cultural component. Similar art forms were used to decorate the home of important elders. I used two wooden sculptures as example from the Luluwa people a female and male figure. And the Mangbetu village, Ekibondo, Belgian Congo. As for the outside view of scarification, European missionaries that established in Africa disapproved the practice of scarification among the tribes. They contrasted it with an un-modified ‘natural body’ made in God’s image. During the late 1800s and into the early 1900s, postcards and photos featuring scarified people were circulated in Europe. Scarification came to represent the ‘exotic’. I looked in to an article that addressed Belgian art nouveau as â€Å"imperial modernism,† created from Congo raw materials and inspired by Congo motifs. Henry van de Velde, one of the artists studied in the article, developed a theory and design of modern ornament, finding as one of his main sources the African body arts of scarification. Henry van de Velde studied the design worn by the Congolese people and implemented them in his costumes designs for women wear and furniture. I found really interested how many art forms origin resembles some aspect of African art.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Machiavelli Essays on Topics

Machiavelli Essays on TopicsMachiavelli's essays are as much about his world view as they are about the topics he is writing about. He is writing not just from the vantage point of a leader, but as a man who saw the most important thing in his life was family. One would expect this would apply to his essays, and indeed it does. But the essay topics themselves have been chosen carefully.The essays focus on themes that deal with how a person would go about making decisions. It is important to know that the essay topics are not always good or bad. Machiavelli has a great influence on every leader who read his essays, but people read them for different reasons. They might read them because they want to know how to be better leaders, or simply because they think it is interesting.The first theme that he deals with is class; this is how one should go about handling a paper class at school. The essay topics in this section can be quite detailed. To answer your question, there is no absolute right or wrong answer to this. Some would not argue that being disciplined means class. Others will argue that it depends on the student and how well he/she does.The second topic in Machiavelli's essays on management is politics. The essay topics are all political. This is about what a person should do to win the elections, or rather why a person would lose if they did not try.For a highly successful leader, Machiavelli has advice on how to make sure the information from the political situation is out there. People need to be able to hear the information so they can make an informed decision. To tell the truth, I feel that this advice can be applied to almost anything. I believe the advice here is for other people, not just leaders.The last topic is for making things happen. People sometimes get caught up in how to make things happen. This is what is referred to as a 'catch 22' situation. The best way to figure out how to do something is to see how it is done. If you do not try, yo u will never know how to do it.Example of an interesting example from this section is: 'If you fail to prepare, you will only learn later, while the damage is already done.' One is reminded of the saying, 'When in Rome, do as Romans do.' This is another example of where Machiavelli can be both misunderstood and taken seriously.Themes in Machiavelli's essays vary. This is an attempt to cover as many as possible. People read them to try to find out how to be better leaders, or to figure out why someone did not do something the way the leader wanted. Some people use these essays to try to figure out why someone lost an election or to try to figure out what they should do.